Annotation. The article is analyzed the modern ways of transformation of the higher education of Ukraine, the economy of education’s system and features of the global market etc. Also the author defines the key directions of forming an effective educational policy in Ukraine and ways to accelerate the export of educational services.
Key words: the economy of the education, education market, the system of the higher education, the export of educational services.
Researched problem. The main system characteristics of the globalization are information and communication revolution, the growth of the transnational research and educational networks and relationships, integration of the world economy and the competition of the nations and markets. In these circumstances, our country must clearly identify priorities for the education system to ensure its international competitiveness.
Relevance of the study. From industrial society we have moved to an economy based on knowledge. The competitiveness of the economy is determined today volume production or natural resources, especially intellectual potential. That is, under present conditions are the main resource of knowledge and information. Knowledge become a source of wealth as an individual and the state in general.
Education is one of the most important components of the human development. Today highly developed nations of the world clearly demonstrate how important is the system of higher education to implement structural reforms, innovation, bearing human freedom and self-improvement, wealth, growing needs, social security and so on. Globalization of the world, the rapid development of scientific research, new information technologies require accelerated development of advanced innovative education, creation of conditions for development of personality, her intelligence and spirituality. Today we can speak of a new globalization of the world market for higher education, in which the mass distribution of education is seen as a guarantee of the country’s competitiveness in the new global economy. Therefore, the study of trends and consequences of globalization of the world market of educational services for the educational system of Ukraine is an important and urgent problem.
Analysis of the recent researches and publications. Challenges of globalization education space dedicated to the work of local and foreign scientists: F. Altbaha, L. Verbitsky, A. Dzhurynsky, A. Lyferova, J. Knight, L., Cs. Lentner (2007, 2018), Oderiya, R. Patory, O. Sahinovoyi, P. Scott, Z. Zeman (2016, 2017). Possibilities of integration of the Ukrainian market of the educational services discussed in V. Zhuravsky, M. Zgurovsky, M. Stepko etc. However, the investigation remains open to question trends transforming education in Ukraine to meet modern challenges of globalization of world education market.
Isolation unsolved aspects of the problem, which the article. Integration processes in higher education intensified globalization, which was the determining factor in the development of post-industrial world.
Integration processes in higher education intensified globalization, which was the determining factor in the development of post-industrial world. This is evidenced by an appearance on the basis of new information and communication technologies for new forms of learning and new areas of international education; increase the number of research centers engaged in current issues of training and develop appropriate recommendations; efforts of developed countries to carry out a coherent policy, and even develop a single strategy in the field of education, including university (ECTS). However, there is an urgent need to identify the main directions of export of educational services in Ukraine in a globalizing world educational space.
The aim of the article is to study the major trends of the global education market and the possibility of expanding exports of services in this area of Ukraine in a globalized educational space.
Presentation of the main material. Today, the notion of “global education market” as a new process is manifested in the development of international relations in the field of training. Globalization of education is uneven: currently in the lead in this area the U.S., which controls a third of the international education market, followed by the United Kingdom – 14% Germany – 12, France – 9%. According to experts, the amount of the education market in 2016 reached 110 billion U.S. dollars, and the competition will continue to grow . Globalization of Higher Education Space is a process of integration of educational services as a whole, which includes the transition to uniform educational programs. Among the main conditions of globalization of educational services can be identified:
Modern effects of globalization, which is felt particularly acutely after the global financial crisis of 2008 clearly highlighted two groups of countries – those who benefited from globalization and losers. Won the most economically developed countries and financial-industrial groups that formed on their basis. The category of losers are less developed countries for which the movement towards an integrated system of world order turned enormous material and social costs. Such way of globalization in the modern world is a process that ensures the well-being of strong by weak [1, p.51]. However, the processes of globalization for both Ukraine and most countries are inevitable. Thus, an important task at this stage is to preserve Ukrainian identity, culture, mentality, educational potential etc.
An important factor in the international competition for the education market is the development of export education, providing an additional source of revenue for schools, is part of their image and credibility and necessary condition for the effective development of education and science in the country. Exports of educational services today introduced four basic models: students abroad, distance learning, opening branches, faculty exchange.
In a globalized educational market in Ukraine to introduce a range of measures to ensure the protection of the interests of both national institutions and would speed the process of integration of educational markets by increasing exports of educational services:
Today, the main constraints of exports of educational services and the formation of a competitive educational environment in Ukraine, in our opinion, are:
1. Unstable political environment, and as a result, lower security training;
2. Powerful development of new competitive global education market participants. The world market for educational services today introduced three major competing markets:
3. Disparity of educational quality existing requirements world educational process;
4. Low quality management system education, and as a result, high levels of wear logistics, reducing the quality of the teaching staff;
5. Lack of government support for training of local students abroad and the low level of investment in the development of science.
6. Unpreparedness national universities for teaching students were hard visas etc.
If objectively assess the state of the education market of Ukraine, the key competitive advantage in the export of educational services, which may serve to attract foreign students, low price of tuition, fundamental approach to teaching the subject that can not give others, and use approaches Bologna to the formation of the curriculum.
Conclusions. Contemporary processes of globalization in all spheres of social life involve building a single educational space based on integration of national markets, educational services and harmonization of educational standards. In the current context of globalization at all levels of functioning of national economies in the world main trend of the global education market as part of the socio-economic system is integration. Ukraine determines its place in this process to ensure that the education received in the state has been competitive in European and world educational space, but man – secure and mobile labour market. An important direction for integration of Ukrainian and world educational space should remain focused on the competitive advantages of domestic higher education system (low cost and accessibility of higher education for foreign nationals). At the same time, should be carried out considerable work towards reducing the impact of negative factors. Therefore, Ukraine should again think seriously about the possibility of expanding the export of educational services, the relationship between traditional and non-traditional forms of education, competitiveness education.
Prospects for the use of research results. International experience shows that the vast majority of the education market consists of public and private sectors. The public sector, which funds the government sends in education for reimbursement for educational services. The private sector (non-government) in which educational services are sold and consumed at market prices. In this market of educational services operate private commercial institutions or government agencies providing services on a contract basis. Future directions of research could be the study of international experience and internationalization features educational activities of public and private higher education institutions, mechanisms to attract private sector funding to universities and others.
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Ph.D., Associate Professor,
Science and Research Institute of Social and Economic Development, Ukraine, Kyiv
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